Earthquake Mass in 12 parts (at The Brighton Early Music Festival 2002
Venue:Church of St Mary-the-Virgin, Brighton
Antoine Brumel - Kyrie (from Missa Et Ecce Terrae Motus)
Brumel - Gloria (from Missa Et Ecce Terrae Motus) Josquin - Ave Maria Virgo serena
Jacob Obrecht - Salve Regina
Brumel - Credo (from Missa Et Ecce Terrae Motus est)
Giaches de Wert - Saule, Saule
Brumel - Sanctus (from Missa Et Ecce Terrae Motus est)
Nicholas Gombert - Ave Maria
Giaches de Wert - Egressus Jesus
Brumel - Agnus Dei (from Missa Et Ecce Terrae Motus est)
Programme notes issued at our Brighton Early Music Festival concert performance of Earthquake Mass:
The main work in tonight's concert, the Missa et ecce terrae motus of Antoine Brumel must represent one of the most significant yet rarely performed works from the entire renaissance period. Famous in its day and remembered reverently for several generations after; in modern times it is extremely rarely performed. It is, in fact, a very difficult mass to prepare and perform. Written in 12 parts, the vocal ranges, particularly within the inner parts, but also for the basses, are so wide that it is hard to imagine how it was originally performed. In tonight's concert we are very grateful to the friends who have joined our regular line up and endured several weeks of very taxing rehearsal, singing in ranges they didn't know they had (!) - and altogether making it possible for us to present this glorious work.
But to put Brumel within his proper context, it is important to know that he was part of a revolutionary 'school' of composers broadly referred to as the Franco Flemish movement, whose chief exponent was the great Josquin des Pres, Brumel's own teacher, and including also both Obrecht and Gombert. Spanning the period from the 15th into the early decades of the 16th centuries, this school of composition comprised composers mostly born in France and the Low Countries, but was pan European in its spread. Italy, with its rich patronage in both court and church, formed the natural home for so many of these musicians. Characteristically, they composed vocal music in Latin, French, German, Dutch and Italian, and doubtless spoke them all fluently too.
The earliest of tonight's composers, Jacob Obrecht, was himself Dutch and was born around 1450. Like many composers of the time he was also a singer and choir director working as far afield as Utrecht, Bruges, Cambrai and Ferrara - where he died of the plague in 1505. His output included secular songs in French, Italian and Dutch as well as a large number of Latin masses and motets.
Obrecht set the Salve Regina text no less than 3 times (in versions for 3, 4 and 6 voices). We are performing his 6-voice setting. This is in a style known as alternatim, where verses of plainchant alternate with verses set in polyphony. Yet even in the polyphonic verses, the chant melody can be heard not only in cantus firmus (long sustained notes in one part), but clearly in the other parts as well using the more modern technique known as imitative counterpoint, where phrases are imitated between the various voices. The rich sonority of the piece owes much to its scoring, with the unusual inclusion of 3 soprano parts, which can often be heard in canon. In fact a lot of the music in tonight's programme uses canon to a greater or lesser extent. A familiar canon these days is 'London's burning'!
Born a Frenchman, Josquin spent most of his life in Italy, working in Milan, the Vatican, Florence and Ferrara, though he ended his life in Brussels. A hugely prolific composer in every genre, he was also a singer, director and a great teacher. One pupil said of him:
'..he did not keep his pupils back with long and useless instructions, but taught them the rules in a few words through practical application in the course of singing'
Although a prolific composer of masses, it is in his motets that's Josquin's greatest skill is seen. Many are highly expressive in their setting of the texts, and very modern in their use of imitative counterpoint rather than the older cantus firmus technique. The 4 part Ave Maria is one of his best known works. It has a radiantly clear texture with much paired imitation (pairs of voices imitating each other) and flowing melodic phrases which develop the plainsong upon which it is based. Even the canon that ends the piece is clear and melodic and expressive of sublime adoration.
Another Frenchman, Antoine Brumel, worked at Chartres cathedral and Notre Dame in Paris, but like his teacher Josquin he eventually settled in Ferrara. His surviving works include 16 masses, but Et ecce terrae motus is quite unlike anything else he wrote. Indeed it is quite unlike any other piece from this period. Although based on a short phrase from the Easter plainsong antiphon for the office of Lauds, the rythmic vitality and contrasts in scoring gives it a very secular feel. Yet it is important to remember that the use both of secular models for sacred works (often popular songs like L'Homme arme) or even sound effects imitating battles in several mass settings, was not at all uncommon at this time.
Like Josquin, Brumel was another master of canon, though in this mass it's use is mainly restricted to a 3 part canon in long notes between the 1st 2 tenor parts and the 3rd bass, acting much like a cantus firmus, and a solid root for the harmony. As with other complex canons, the harmony is often quite static, but the rhythmic complexity is quite astounding. There is very little imitative counterpoint, but more short figures thrown around the parts with great rapidity. In the movements with more text, the gloria and credo, he even used passages with most of the parts flowing in the same rhythm (homophony) or even moments of chanting in near speech rhythm (falso bordone) so that in the end these movements are no longer than the more intricately set kyrie or sanctus.
The scoring of this mass set us the greatest challenge. With the exception of the 3 soprano parts which follow ranges typical for boy trebles of the time, the remaining parts are extremely wide ranging. We have tackled this problem by using a mixture of altos and tenors on all of the 5 middle parts. Even then, the first'alto' part is still very low in places, and the basses are frequently expected to sing into the tenor range.
All of which certainly adds to the dramatic quality of this great masterpiece.
Nicholas Gombert, was also possibly a pupil of Josquin, and again, although born in the Low Countries he travelled widely around Europe: France, Spain, Italy, Germany and Austria. Ten masses of his survive, but his greatest output was of motets. In his music the imitative style of Josquin is melded in to a dense and rich web of sound. Like Josquin, though, he could also write in clear simple textures, as his Ave Maria illustrates. It forms a gentle foil for the extravagances of Brumel's earth moving drama.
With Giaches de Wert we move forward another generation in time. Yet again, although he was Dutch by birth, he worked mostly abroad, and like his predecessors spent some time at the court of Ferrara. His chief post however was at Santa Barbara in Mantua, and it was for this establishment that most of his sacred music would have been performed. Both Egressus Jesus and Saule, Saule are dialogue motets, that that tell biblical stories in quasi-dramatic style. Egressus Jesus tells of the woman who approached Jesus begging him to cure her demon ridden daughter. The woman is represented by the higher voices, while Jesus by the lower. All of the voices join together in the final stirring passage in which Jesus extolls her great faith. Saule, Saule, on the other hand tells of the conversion of St Paul on the road to Damascus. In such motets it is clear to see the antecedents of the later oratorio.
Deborah Roberts, September 2002
Ave Maria Virgo Serena
Ave Maria gratia plena dominus tecum, virgo serena.
Ave, coelorum Domina, Maria plena gratia, coelestia, terrestria, mundum replens laetitia.
Ave, cuius nativitas nostra fuit solemnitas, ut lucifer lux oriens verum solem praeveniens.
Ave, pia humilitas, sine viro fecunditas, cuius annuntiatio nostra fuit salvatio.
Ave, vera virginitas, immaculata castitas, cuius purificatio nostra fuit purgatio. Ave, praeclara omnibus angelicis virtutibus, cuius fuit assumptio nostra glorificatio.
O mater Dei, memento mei. Amen
Hail Mary, full of grace the Lord is with thee, serene Virgin.
Hail, Queen of heaven, Mary full of grace, filling the world with heavenly and earthly joy.
Hail, whose birth brought us joy, as Lucifer, the morning star, went before the true sun.
Hail, pious humility, fruitful without a man, whose Annuciation brought us salvation.
Hail, true virginity, immaculate chastity, whose purification brought our cleansing.
Hail, glorious one in all angelic virtues, whose Assumption was our glorification.
O Mother of God, remember me. Amen.
Salve Regina misericordiae, Vita dulcedo et spes nostra salve.
Ad te clamamus exsules filii Hevae.
Ad te suspiramus gementes et flentes, in hac lacrimarum valle.
Eja ergo advocata nostra, illos tuos misericordes oculos ad nos converte.
Et Jesum benedictum fructum ventris tui nobis post hoc exsilium ostende.
O clemens, o pia, o dulcis Virgo Maria.
Hail, Queen of pity, our life, our sweetness and our hope.
We, exiled children of Eve, cry out to thee.
To thee we sigh, lamenting and weeping in this vale of tears.
Therefore, O our advocate, turn thy merciful eyes upon us;
And after this exile show us the blessed fruit of thy womb, Jesus:
O gracious, O good, O sweet Virgin Mary.
Saule, quid me persequeris?
Quis es, Domine?
Ego sum Iesus, quem tu persequeris.
Durum est tibi contra stimulum calcitrare.
Domine, quid me vis facere?
Surge, et ingredere civitatem, et dicetur tibi quid te oporteat facere.
Saul, why persecutest thou me?
Who art thou, Lord?
I am Jesus whom thou persecutest.
It is hard for thee to kick against the pricks.
Lord, what will thou have me to do?
Arise, and go into the city, and it shall be told thee what thou must do
Ave Maria,gratia plena, Dominus tecum,
benedicta tu in mulieribus
et benedictus fructus ventris tui, Jesus.
Sancta Maria, Regina coeli, dulcis et pia,
O Mater Dei ora pro nobis peccatoribus
ut cum electis te videamus.
Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with thee:
blessed art thou among women,
and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.
Holy Mary, queen of heaven, gentle and faithful,
O mother of God, pray for our sins,
so that we may see thee with the chosen.
15:21 Egressus Iesus secessit in partes Tyri et Sedonis
15:22 et ecce mulier Chananea a finibus illis egressa clamavit dicens ei
'miserere mei Domine Fili David filia mea male a daemonio vexatur'
15:23 qui non respondit ei verbum et accedentes discipuli eius rogabant eum dicentes 'dimitte eam quia clamat post nos'
15:24 ipse autem respondens ait 'non sum missus nisi ad oves quae perierunt domus Israel'
15:25 at illa venit et adoravit eum dicens 'Domine adiuva me'
15:26 qui respondens ait 'non est bonum sumere panem filiorum et mittere canibus'
15:27 at illa dixit 'etiam Domine nam et catelli edunt de micis quae cadunt de mensa dominorum suorum'
15:28 tunc respondens Iesus ait illi 'o mulier magna est fides tua, fiat tibi sicut vis'.
15:21. Jesus went thence, and departed into the coasts of Tyre and Sidon.
15:22. And, behold, a woman of Canaancame out of the same coasts, and cried unto him, saying, Have mercy on me, O Lord, thou son of David; my daughter is grievously vexed with a devil.
15:23. But he answered her not a word. And his disciples came and besought him, saying, Send her away for she crieth after us.
15:24. But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel.
15:25. Then came she and worshipped him, saying, Lord, help me.
15:26. But he answered and said, It is not meet to take the children's bread, and to cast it to dogs.
15:27. And she said, Truth, Lord: yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their masters' table.
15:28. Then Jesus answered and said unto her, O woman, great is thy faith: be it unto thee even as thou wilt.